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TOPIC: High mountains safely

High mountains safely 24/09/2014 10:46 #1404

The continuous repetition of serious accidents at high and low mountain can not be indifferent to the CLUB 4000, which, among its activities also raises the contribution that wants to give the cultural level is the mountain environment protection to the safety of the mountain goers.

Cai has always dealt with security issues especially with mountaineering courses and its publications. Despite the succession of accidents, Cai found it necessary to promote, from the beginning of 2009, a "Permanent Campaign for the prevention of accidents in the mountains", Supporting the "mountain Safe" project ( www.sicurinmontagna.it ) Of the National Mountain Rescue Corps, for a further spread of a culture of prevention in the various specific fields of environment frequented mountain and the adoption of adequate and appropriate preventive measures.
We CLUB 4000 want to join this campaign and give the visitors the high mountains some fruit indications experience of our members.

On security it is not a matter of inventing anything new because everything has already been said and written, from the guides and mountain rescue members, especially after each incident.
We therefore propose to condense into a Decalogue some recommendations that, although risapute, not bad once in a while to remember.

These our recommendations are based on four observations that we can consider real "warnings" to those who attended the mountain:

1 ° - mountaineering is the most dangerous sport of all known sports (ancient and modern): this means that those who decide to engage in this sport is to put in the budget the possibility (hopefully the most unlikely) to face , in the course of his career climbing some difficult event, and then it must prepare and gear up properly to avoid being disarmed.
Unlike other sports it should also be noted that the mountain accidents are rarely solved with simple injuries, while more easily are deadly.
"The mountaineer - He wrote Gaston Rébuffat - He is a man who leads his physical place where one day his eyes are fixed. And that goes back to it. Climbing is a sport, but he who climbs in the mountains, as one who surfs the sea or through a desert, arises suddenly in a very different situation from other sports because ascension is always manly adventure. Become mountaineer means some climbing, but also to every climb more and be more in harmony with the altitude, guess, understand, be of the same breed of snow and rock ".

2 ° -no easy mountain, sure, you can go in peace: the mountains incidents do not occur only at high altitudes and during climbs, but also occur during and even easy hikes on the trails.
Often they read in the papers after serious accidents titles like "Killer mountain": In fact the existence of objective dangers in the mountain attendance is a given in itself unavoidable. The danger is related, in fact, the unpredictability of events and accompanies the human history since its inception.
But responsibility for the accident, except in cases of avalanches, landslides, collapses unforeseen, is always to be charged to man.
He wrote Reinhold Messner: "The mountains are not fair or unfair, are only dangerous".

3 ° -the accidents occur mostly downhill: this observation-warning may surprise you but it is what appears from the analysis of the dynamics of many accidents that occur every year and reminds us what the history of mountaineering in which you record falls deadly, precisely during the descent, the great exponents of the sport from Comedians in Gervasutti to Grassi in Casarotto Miha Valic (Club 4000) and others.

4 ° -in the mountains the most treacherous element is not the rock or ice, but the snow: and this concerns not only skiers and ski-mountaineers, climbers and hikers.

Also it should always keep in mind that the high mountain activities require intense physical exertion and prolonged, so, before you deal with it, you should make sure about their physical condition (a good state of health and training); if in doubt you should consult a physician experienced in mountain medicine.
It also requires a good organizational commitment as well as a constant attention to basic safety standards and good behavior.
Climbing at high altitude, at altitudes over 3000 meters, is to enter into an austere environment where the amount of oxygen in the air, and, frequently, also temperature, reduces up to extreme levels. The body reacts immediately with compensation mechanisms requiring a normal functioning of the heart and lungs, but also healthy and fit people, rising rapidly at high altitudes may possibly be involved in the acute mountain sickness (MAM); if your symptoms are not resolved you should go down in altitude to avoid serious health complications. If you can not get down the price does not waste time and call for help.
Finally, one should not underestimate the low temperatures, especially in windy conditions
Equipment, techniques and modern tools help the climber but not replace certain knowledge and skills.
Here, then, the need to comply with certain rules to fully enjoy a climb well prepared and well managed, so that the mountain will always be a safe dream.
In this chapter we only provide some synthetic "recommendations" to those who attend the high (and low) mountain. For further details of the matters discussed we denote the following precious Italian Alpine Club Manuals:

-Mountaineering on ice and mixed, Cai, Milan, 2005
-L'allenamento Alpinist, Cai, Milan, 1997
-medicine And mountain, 2 vols, Cai, Milan, 2009
from which some of the information given in these pages have been drawn.

In light of the aforementioned summary, we can draw up the following:

Decalogue alpinist

1-Physical and technical preparation:
as in every sport should be assessed carefully and take care of their physical and technical preparation and training in techniques of ice and rock, including insurance techniques and particularly dynamic insurance, before you face any task, remembering the ' acclimatization to high altitude.
For beginners, for those who accuse disorders, and those wanting to participate in expeditions in high altitude, it is appropriate specialist examination by a sports medicine center.

2-Power:
It must be easily absorbed with the right balance between carbohydrates, fats and proteins, and consist of food energy, digestible and light to carry. Exclude alcoholic beverages and use in moderation carbonated beverages. supplements useful salts and energy bars.

3-Clothing:
preferring a "layered" clothing to be able to increase or reduce body temperature depending on the circumstances. The main functions of the clothing are:
Protecting by adverse weather conditions,
-to promote or at least not hinder thermoregulation processes in the body,
Protecting the environment from harmful mechanical effects (such as rubbing against rough surfaces, penetration of cutting elements, etc.),
-to ensure comfort, without hindering movement.
Predict rain defenses, snow, wind, sun.

4-Equipment and Tools:
helmetHe must protect the head and spine to be strong forces derived from falling rocks or ice, from bumps against the wall or other obstacles during a fall. Therefore essential both for mountaineering in all its forms, but also for hiking: as well as helmet use has spread from biker to biker the same can happen between the climber and hiker.
harnessIt is essential both for mountaineers and for hikers along railways, equipped paths. The harness, when dropped, whose main task is to spread the stress especially on the pelvis and upper thighs and the rent must be transmitted to the body through an application point above its center of gravity; it must not be possible, in any case, the extraction,
equipment: Must be top notch and perfectly functional; in particular it recommended the continuous control of the strings was, cords, tapes, referrals, etc.
crampon: Absolutely have to have anti-socket plates ( "antibott" or "ANTISNOW"),
instruments: Photo camera, binoculars, headlamp, altimeter, compass, thermometer, mobile phone, mobile phone, GPS, Arva, as needed,
tools: Probe, shovel, etc. They are to be considered from time to time which are necessary and / or essential.

5-Documentation:
before tackling any climb it is essential to document carefully: maps, guide-books, collections of cards for each climb are widely available.
On the internet you can easily find any detailed information on climbing routes and downhill.
The Club 4000 - as has been said in previous chapters - also offers in this regard a personal advice.

6-preventive information and on site:
and snowy weather information, easily available on various sites, should be checked not only before leaving but also in the days before the climb in program to make sure the trend of the time.
E 'useful to consult the guides offices to ensure on the mountain state in general and the ways that it is planning.

7-Planning of the climb:
not to leave never alone: This is not a suggestion but a categorical imperative.
Choosing the right company to its real possibilities and the physical conditions of the moment.
In planning the timing, leaving some margin day to make up for possible schedule changes. Haste, ambition and an inordinate sense of challenge are bad advisers.
Check the completeness and efficiency of the equipment and prepare it carefully (a useful check-list), also to deal with a possible emergency bivouac, depending on the technical and environmental characteristics of the route you intend to follow.
The bag is the most faithful companion during the ascension: prepare it so rationally, avoiding unnecessary and excessive weight. Remember parts: headlamp batteries, etc.
Bring a copy of the reports of the climb and descent on the path designed but also relationships of alternative routes which can be made area, plus a detailed topographic map (1: 25.000, 1: 50.000).
Make sure the cell phone charge to keep him warm between clothing. Always keep in mind that often in the side and in the secondary valleys valleys can be no coverage needed to make calls; so inquire in advance about it and, where appropriate, work with radio-telephone or satellite phone.
Make sure the average rise and fall times. Evaluate the departure time from the ascension to be done, remembering that the best conditions in the mountains are those of the early hours of the day, especially for routes that involve crossing snowfields and glaciers.
Consider whether it is advisable to provide a fall-back uphill or an alternative route, if one scheduled, for various reasons, it is not currently done.
To examine possible alternatives to the route that, in case of difficulty, allow a safe return.

8-Progression safely:
both uphill and downhill proceed according to safety dictates Cai learned in the courses; downhill cure so particular abseiling trying anchors, lanyards, carabiners, ropes, etc.
Pay constant attention to changing weather conditions.
Frequently check the position, verifying the GSM network coverage and respect of journey times: respect a timetable is provided absolute security.
Assess whether the equipment and materials ensure the continuation of ascension with an adequate margin of safety.
Keeping on schedule and not exceeding in unnecessary stops.
Objectively evaluate their conditions and companions: the fatigue and the psycho-physical decay have adverse effects on decision-making skills.
Remember that reaching the summit is not the end goal because it still lacks the descent. Often, once you get to the summit, there is a voltage drop and concentration that causes accidents.
Always bear in mind that knowing how to give up is not a demerit but a sign of prudence and wisdom.

9-Health and hygiene:
avoid smoking, drugs and stimulants.
Always bring in a lot of emergency First Aid kit to treat minor injuries, illnesses and injuries, first aid generic medications (eye drops, MAM, dizziness, etc.) and personal.
Do not forget everything about personal hygiene.

10- Mountain rescue:
leave always said or written to family members, friends, caretakers of the huts, the guides offices, books of the bivouacs, in a parked car, about which mountains and on which routes you are going.
Stored on the phone to emergency numbers.
Never endanger his life, his companions and those who will be there to rescue ..
Request the intervention of the SA only in case of extreme necessity.
In an emergency, reflect and avoid reckless actions or rash behavior that could further complicate the situation. Securing the injured, protect it from the cold, find him a shelter. If you decide to call for help, be prepared to answer the following questions: "Who are you and cell phone number, where you are, what happened, weather conditions, obstacles to the possible intervention
helicopter "
.
If relief efforts are carried by helicopter, at his approach squat, if you can, and remain motionless until the landing of the rescuers. Check that there are no objects in the area that can be relieved by the flow of the helicopter rotor. Activate the signs to the helicopter.
If you are unable to call for help: try to reach a rescue point; to secure and sheltered the injured; activate the conventional optical and acoustic signaling that everyone should know.

In conclusion, here is a more valid warning offered by an expert:
"You are responsible for what you do, but also what is not done"
(Marcus Wey, the Andermatt mountain guide)


Further to what was exposed in this paper we point out the comic book "Mountain Medicine for All", implemented under the project Alcotra Résamont 2 (mountain medicine network around Mont Blanc) from certain mountain Foundation of Courmayeur (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.), Azienda USL Valle d'Aosta and Ifremmont Chamonix. The comic tells the story of three young boys who are going to climb the Gran Paradiso, their first "4.000". "Walter the expert", the mountain doctor and mountain guide, will accompany Romain, Dany and kloee in the company's preparation for explaining the ten recommendations to tackle the climb safely from the medical point of view.

Can be found at: issuu.com/fondazionems/docs/medicina_di_montagna_per_tutti

The "Secure Mountain Foundation" operates as a center of operations and applied research, training center accredited and documentation center for all visitors of the high mountains. For more information: www.fondazionemontagnasicura.org
Thank You: Aldo Tosetti

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Last modified: by Luciano Ratto.
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